Posts Tagged ‘learning process’

Make It Harder to Learn!

Friday, December 14th, 2012

In June, 2010, noted author and Chronicle columnist on teaching and learning, James M. Lang, suggested that when learning seems easy, the result may be shallower learning.  This phenomenon, called cognitive disfluency, creates a challenge.  If material is too hard, learning could be shut off.  What we need to create, Lang suggested, is desirable difficulties – just enough difficulty to encourage deep learning and not shut off motivation to learn.  Lang asked participants at a teaching conference to identify strategies that characterize desirable difficulties that would safely bring about cognitive disfluency.  Here are the strategies (June 4, 2010, The Chronicle Review):

  • Ask students to process or translate course material using unusual rhetorical or expressive modes. I have always listened with skepticism to accounts of teachers asking their students to translate course concepts into 140-character status updates. But my workshop participants argued that having students take concepts and rework them in the form of a text message, or a Twitter update, or even visual representations or performances, could have the same defamiliarizing effect that might be achieved by a change in fonts.
  • Require students to argue on behalf of unfamiliar positions. One of my participants was a political scientist who asks her students to debate issues in the Arab-Israeli conflict—and routinely requires them to argue against their personally held convictions. Another participant, who teaches a course for medical students on abortion, does the same. In both cases, they observed, students are forced into the uncomfortable and defamiliarizing position of having to look at a well-trod debate from a new angle.
  • Ask students to find or identify mistakes. A professor of architecture noted that he occasionally makes mistakes while doing calculations on the board, and that his students had learned to watch out for those errors and correct him. A math professor then pointed out that he would sometimes deliberately seed mistakes into assigned problems and ask students to find them. In both cases students were nudged out of the mode of simply observing or running through the problems on automatic pilot. That may seem like an artificial technique, or like playing games with students—but only until you stop and think about how many jobs require people to review presentations, problems, performances, or communications and make sure they are mistake-free.
  • Plan for failure. A faculty member in chemistry said you can wake students up by asking them to undertake short experiments that are designed to fail. Rather than simply going through the motions of a lab, and finding the expected result planned for them by the teacher, students learn what every experienced researcher in the world knows: that experiments, like scholarly research of any kind, almost never proceed exactly as you planned them, and that you can learn a lot from your failures.

Does “cover” equal “learning”?

Monday, August 6th, 2012

In the July 9, 2012 issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education, Dan Berrett described role- and game-playing pedagogy being used in college courses.  Mr. Higbee, an Eastern Michigan University faculty member, reported that on nongame days attendance is lower:  “You can cover things, but there is tremendous evidence that coverage does not equal learning.”  What exactly are we doing when we “cover” material in class?  If when we are “covering” we merely repeat what is in a text or can be read online, there is no point for students to attend class.  By experiencing what we want to “cover,” students have a better chance of actually learning.

Try Learning Something You Don’t Know How to Do

Monday, April 2nd, 2012

Maybe you think that because you have learned a lot about your discipline, you can easily learn something that is totally new for you.  Have you ever considered what your students are going through when they attempt to learn material that is totally new for them?    In a personal description of what it was like to learn to swim, Stephen Brookfield “recounts his own efforts to master a daunting new skills and the many lessons he learned about teaching and learning in the process.”  The article, Through the Lens of Learning: How Experiencing Difficult Learning Challenges and Changes Assumptions About Teaching, is readily available on the internet:  http://www.biochem.wisc.edu/faculty/weibel/lab/education/Brookfield_Through_the_Lens_1996.pdf.  Read it and then decide about how easily you might learn your discipline if you have no prior knowledge or experience with it.

CITL Answers – April 2011

Friday, April 1st, 2011

Question: I often struggle to strike a balance between student learning goals for disciplinary content and learning goals for transferring processes to future situations. Don’t students have to know content before they can learn processes like critical thinking?

CITL’s Answer: Your question is one we all face for courses at all levels. If students are going to think critically, for example, they do need something to think about – content! But, often there is so much content, it would be impossible to expect students to retain it all. DiCarlo and Lujan made recommendations that make sense. They noted that information changes so rapidly, the answers to questions today may be the wrong answers tomorrow. Learning is not always about committing facts to memory, but rather about learning how to find, evaluate, apply, and use information. They recommended that faculty reduce the amount of content presentation in class and replace that time with a focus on active learning pedagogies that will enable students to learn and practice the processes that can be transferred into life after college. The content will be there, ready and waiting for the processes. E-mail Karen_StClair@emerson.edu for the DiCarlo and Lujan references.